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malta13 [2013/04/05 13:44]
malta13 [2014/09/17 11:03]
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 The workshop will be held in the Corinthia Palace Hotel, De Paule Avenue, San Anton. Participants will get special room rates - more information can be found in the Local Arrangements section. ​ The workshop will be held in the Corinthia Palace Hotel, De Paule Avenue, San Anton. Participants will get special room rates - more information can be found in the Local Arrangements section. ​
 +The workshop is being coordinated by the University of Malta. The Malta Council for Science and Technology (MCST) is the managing authority for COST in Malta.
 ===== PROGRAM ===== ===== PROGRAM =====
 +The planned structure of the workshop will be filled in with more detail closer to the date.
 === Sunday, 16 June 2013 === === Sunday, 16 June 2013 ===
-More details to follow. 
-09.00-10.00 Invited talk +^             ^ Title                 ^ Speaker ^ 
-| 10.00-10.30 | Coffee break | +10.00-10.30 | {{:​malta13-colombo.pptx|Verifying Web Applications:​ From Business Level Specifications to Automated Model-Based Testing}} ​Christian Colombo ​
-10.30-12.30 Talks +| 10.30-11.00 | {{:malta13-samborski-forlese.pdf|Simulation Relations for Rich Acceptance Conditions}} | Julian Samborski-Forlese | 
-| 12.30-13.30 | Lunch | +| 11.00-11.30 | **Coffee break** |
-13.30-15.00 | Talks +11.30-12.00 Coinductive big-step semantics for concurrency | Tarmo Uustalu ​
-| 15.00-15.30 | Coffee break | +12.00-12.30 | {{:malta13-rodriguez-carbonell.pdf|To Encode or to Propagate? The Best Choice for Each Constraint in SAT}} | Enric Rodriguez-Carbonell | 
-| 15.30-17.00 | Talks +| 12.30-14.00 ​**Lunch** |
-| 19.30- | Workshop dinner |+14.00-14.30 | Model-checking for Efficient Malware Detection | Tayssir Touilli | 
 +| 14.30-15.00 | {{:​malta13-perez.pdf|Decidable Classes of Mean-Payoff Games with Imperfect Information}} | Guillermo Perez 
 +| 15.00-15.30 | **Coffee break** |
 +| 15.30-16.00 | {{:​malta13-pace.pdf|Reasoning About Contracts}} | Gordon Pace | 
 +| 16.00-16.30 | {{:​malta13-jensen.pdf|Fictional Separation Logic}} | Jonas Jensen | 
 +| 16.30-17.30 | MC Meeting |
 +| 19.30- | **Workshop dinner** ||
 === Monday, 17 June 2013 === === Monday, 17 June 2013 ===
-| 09.00-10.00 | Invited ​talk +^             ^ Title                 ^ Speaker ^ 
-| 10.00-10.30 | Coffee break | +| 09.00-10.00 | {{:​malta13-hermenegildo.pdf|Analysis and Verification ``of and with''​ Horn Clauses (using the Ciao system) }}**(Invited ​Speaker)** | Manuel Hermenegildo ​
-| 10.30-12.30 | Talks +| 10.00-10.30 | **Coffee break** |
-| 12.30-13.30 | Lunch | +| 10.30-11.00 | {{:​malta13-beyene.pdf|Solving Existentially Quantfied Horn Clauses}} | Tewodros Beyene | 
-13.30-15.00 | Talks +| 11.00-11.30 | {{:​malta13-selajev.pdf|Scaling Dynamic Logic for Intermediate States}} | Boriss Selajev ​
-| 15.00-15.30 | Coffee break | +11.30-12.00 | {{:​malta13-lengal.pdf|Fully Automated Shape Analysis Based on Forest Automata}} | Ondrej Lengal | 
-| 15.30-17.00 | Talks |+| 12.00-12.30 | {{:malta13-sanchez.pdf|Invariant Generation for Parametrized Systems using Self-Reflection}} | Alejandro Sanchez | 
 +| 12.30-14.00 ​**Lunch** |
 +14.00-15.00 | {{:​malta13-gallagher.pdf|Verification by Abstraction and Specialisation of Constraint Logic Programs}} **(Invited speaker)** | John Gallagher ​
 +| 15.00-15.30 | **Coffee break** |
 +| 15:30-16:00 | {{:​malta13-siirtola.pdf|Object-Oriented Programs as Parameterised Systems}} | Siirtola Antti | 
 +| 16.00-16.30 | {{:​malta13-konecny.pdf|Underapproximation of Procedure Summaries for Integer Programs}} | Filip Konecni | 
 +| 16.30-17.00 | {{:​malta13-jackson.pdf|Auditing User-provided Axioms in Software Verification Conditions}} | Paul Jackson | 
 +| 17:00-17:30 | {{:​malta13-monniaux.pdf|Death by a Thousand Cuts (worst-case execution time by bounded model checking)}} | David Monniaux | 
 +| 17:30-18:00 | Discussion Session: Cross-fertilization between Logic Programming with CLP and Horn Clause Verification ||
 ===== General Information ===== ===== General Information =====
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   * **High-level synthesis:​** New algorithms for synthesis from high-level specifications. Extending decision procedures to perform synthesis tasks. Connections ​ between invariant generation and code synthesis.   * **High-level synthesis:​** New algorithms for synthesis from high-level specifications. Extending decision procedures to perform synthesis tasks. Connections ​ between invariant generation and code synthesis.
 +===== Talk Abstracts =====
 +**Verifying Web Applications:​ From Business Level Specifications to Automated Model-Based Testing**
 +//Christian Colombo//
 +While the verification of web-based applications is crucial due to their often security-critical nature, it is considerably challenging due to their complex and dynamical nature. The current state of the art involves automated test execution where a test platform automatically interacts with a web application and asserts the expected behaviour. Still, test cases are typically generated manually, particularly when it comes to directing the test to exercise particular execution paths. In this presentation,​ we propose a novel combination of the QuickCheck testcase generation tool with web-based applications:​ QuickCheck exploits an executable automata-based specification to drive and assert the application in an automated yet non-random fashion. However, writing the specification is non-trivial and requires manual intervention. To this end, we propose a means of generating QuickCheck specifications from Cucumber specifications – a commonly used high level specification language for communicating with business stakeholders. ​
 +** Simulation Relations for Rich Acceptance Conditions **
 +//Julian Samborski-Forlese//​
 +Antichain algorithms allow to obtain faster emptiness and model checking
 +algorithms for alternating automata by postponing the state explosion
 +inherent to the translation into equivalent non-deterministic automata.
 +Antichains require computable simulation relations between sets of states in
 +the alternating automaton which depend on the acceptance condition. So far,
 +only Buchi conditions have been studied, which preclude the application of
 +antichains to rich temporal logics like RLTL and PSL, for which more
 +sophisticated acceptance conditions are used. In this talk we present
 +simulation relations for some Rabin and Streett automata that enable the use
 +of antichains for these richer temporal logics
 +** Coinductive big-step semantics for concurrency **
 +//Tarmo Uustalu// ​
 +Going against the popular statements that big-step semantics cannot handle ​     ​
 +nontermination (they would necessarily "​lose"​ all nonterminating runs) and      ​
 +that concurrency is inherently small-step, I present a big-step semantics ​      
 +for shared-variable concurrency that accounts correctly for both                ​
 +terminating and nonterminating runs. This semantics is based on                 
 +coinductive and mixed inductive-coinductive definitions of resumptions ​         ​
 +(computation trees), evaluation and termination-sensitive weak                  ​
 +bisimilarity. Big-step reasoning offers a higher degree of                      ​
 +compositionality as is exemplified eg by rely-guarantee style program ​          
 +logics that are in fact big-step and are more directly matched with             
 +big-step rather than small-step semantics. I develop the metatheory of the      ​
 +semantics in a constructive logic. ​                                             ​
 +** To Encode or to Propagate? The Best Choice for Each Constraint in SAT **
 +//Enric Rodriguez-Carbonell// ​
 +Sophisticated compact SAT encodings exist for many types of                     
 +constraints. Alternatively,​ for instances with many (or large) ​                 ​
 +constraints,​ the SAT solver can also be extended with built-in ​                 ​
 +propagators (the SAT Modulo Theories approach, SMT).  For                       
 +example, given a cardinality constraint x_1 + ... + x_n <=                ​
 +k, as soon as k variables become true, such a propagator can                 
 +set the remaining variables to false, generating a so-called ​                   ​
 +explanation clause of the form x_1 /\ .../\ x_k                      ​
 +-> ~ x_i.  But certain "​bottle-neck"​ constraints ​                
 +end up generating an exponential number of explanations, ​                       ​
 +equivalent to a naive SAT encoding, much worse than using a                     
 +compact encoding with auxiliary variables from the beginning. ​                  
 +Therefore, Abio and Stuckey proposed starting off with a full               
 +SMT approach and partially encoding, on the fly, only                    ​
 +certain ``active''​ parts of constraints. ​ Here we build upon                    ​
 +their work.                                                                     
 +                                                                                ​
 +Equipping our solvers with some additional bookkeeping to monitor ​              
 +constraint activity has allowed us to shed light on the                         
 +effectiveness of SMT: many constraints generate very few, or few                ​
 +different, explanations. ​                                                       ​
 +                                                                                ​
 +We also give strong experimental evidence showing that it is typically
 +unnecessary to consider partial encodings: it is competitive to encode
 +the few really active constraints entirely. This makes the approach
 +amenable to any kind of constraint, not just the ones for which
 +partial encodings are known.
 +This is joint work with Ignasi Abío, Robert Nieuwenhuis,​ Albert ​                
 +Oliveras and Peter J. Stuckey. ​                                                 ​
 +** Model-checking for efficient malware detection **
 +//Tayssir Touilli// ​
 +The number of malware is growing extraordinarily fast. Therefore, it is         
 +important to have efficient malware detectors. Malware writers try to           
 +obfuscate their code by different techniques. Many of these well-known ​         ​
 +obfuscation techniques rely on operations on the stack such as inserting ​       ​
 +dead code by adding useless push and pop instructions,​ or hiding calls          ​
 +to the operating system, etc. Thus, it is important for malware ​                
 +detectors to be able to deal with the program’s stack. In this paper we         
 +propose a new model-checking approach for malware detection that takes          ​
 +into account the behavior of the stack. Our approach consists in : (1)          ​
 +Modeling the program using a Pushdown System (PDS). (2) Introducing new         
 +logics, called SCTPL and SLTPL, to represent the malicious behavior. ​           ​
 +SCTPL (resp. SLTPL) can be seen as an extension of the branching-time ​          
 +temporal logic CTL (resp. the linear-time temporal logic LTL) with              ​
 +variables, quantifiers,​ and predicates over the stack. (3) Reducing the         
 +malware detection problem to the model-checking problem of PDSs against ​        
 +SCTPL/SLTPL formulas. We show how our new logics can be used to                 
 +precisely express malicious behaviors that could not be specified by            ​
 +existing specification formalisms. We then consider the model-checking ​         ​
 +problem of PDSs against SCTPL/SLTPL specifications. We provide efficient ​       ​
 +algorithms to solve these problems. We implemented our techniques in a          ​
 +tool, and we applied it to detect several viruses. Our results are              ​
 +encouraging. ​                                                                   ​
 +In particular, our tool was able to detect more than 800 viruses. ​              
 +Several of these viruses could not be detected by well-known ​                   ​
 +anti-viruses such as Avira, Avast, Norton, Kaspersky and McAfee.  ​
 +** Decidable Classes of Mean-Payoff Games with Imperfect Information **
 +//Guillermo Perez// ​
 +Energy games and Mean-payoff games have been studied as two-player games        ​
 +with quantitative objectives. In the perfect information setting deciding ​      
 +the winner of such games is known to be in both NP and coNP yet only            ​
 +pseudo-polynomial time algorithms have been found for the                       
 +original unmodified objectives. The problem of determining if an energy ​        
 +game with imperfect information has a winning strategy is known to be           
 +undecidable for the case when the initial credit is not fixed. The same is      ​
 +true for the problem of determining if a mean-payoff game with imperfect ​       ​
 +information has a winning strategy. We propose a new class of mean-payoff ​      
 +games with imperfect information for which the problem is known to be           
 +decidable and for which the aforementioned problem is EXPTIME-complete. We      ​
 +also consider the complexity of deciding if a given weighted game graph         
 +with imperfect information belongs to this class. In order to better ​           ​
 +understand the source of undecidability for these objectives under              ​
 +imperfect information we also consider related classes of weighted game         
 +graphs with imperfect information as well as the related class membership ​      
 +and existence of winning strategy problems. ​                                    
 +** Contract Analysis **
 +//Gordon J. Pace//
 +The analysis of contracts to regulating interactive systems poses various challenges, but
 +is closely linked to the notions of concurrency and synchrony. We present a number of
 +recent results which take an automaton-based approach to model such contracts. We show how
 +obligations,​ permissions and prohibitions can be formalised and how the norms on one of the
 +parties sometimes imposes constraints on the other. Such formalisation allows for a clean
 + ​notion of contract strictness and a derived notion of contract conflict that is enriched ​
 +with issues arising from party interdependence.
 +//Joint work with Fernando Schapachnik and Gerardo Schneider.//​
 +** Fictional Separation Logic **
 +//Jonas Jensen//
 +** **
 +//Manuel Hermenegildo//​
 +The talk will start with an overview of techniques for abstract
 +interpretation-based program analysis and verification of constraint
 +logic programs (CLP), with emphasis on the on top-down fixpoint
 +algorithms used in the Ciao system (note that bottom-up techniques
 +will be covered in John Gallagher'​s talk). ​ We will demonstrate the
 +Ciao system analysis and verification-based program development
 +environment,​ built around these techniques and capable of verifying
 +shapes, modes, determinacy,​ non-failure,​ numerical properties, etc. as
 +well as resources such as bandwidth, time, memory, or, more recently,
 +energy. We will then address how, by using CLP as an intermediate
 +representation,​ the approach (and the Ciao system itself) also
 +supports the verification of similar properties in programs in other
 +programming paradigms, including Java source or bytecode, and assembly
 +code produced from C sources. ​ Finally, we present how the same
 +fixpoint techniques are applied in the execution of Tabled LP programs
 +(such as in the XSB system) and Tabled CLP programs (such as in the
 +TCLP package of the Ciao system), which can be an interesting
 +component for program analyzers for other programming paradigms.
 +** Solving Existentially Quantfied Horn Clauses **
 +//Tewodros Beyene//
 +Temporal verification of universal (i.e., valid for all computation paths)
 +properties of various kinds of programs, e.g., procedural, multi-threaded,​
 +or functional, can be reduced to finding solutions for equations in form of
 +universally quantified Horn clauses extended with well-foundedness
 +conditions. Dealing with existential properties (e.g., whether there exists
 +a particular computation path), however, requires solving forall-exists
 +quantified Horn clauses, where the conclusion part of some clauses contains
 +existentially quantified variables. For example, a deductive approach to
 +CTL verification reduces to solving such clauses.
 +The talk presents a method for solving forall-exists quantified Horn
 +clauses extended with well-foundedness conditions. Our method is based on a
 +counterexample-guided abstraction refinement scheme to discover witnesses
 +for existentially quantified variables. We also present an application of
 +our solving method to automation of CTL verification of software, as well
 +as its experimental evaluation.
 +** Scaling dynamic logic for intermediate states **
 +//Boriss Selajev// ​
 +Standard sequential program logics are insufficient for reasoning ​              
 +about nonterminating program runs --- they essentially overlook them.           
 +But of course we want to reason also about nonterminating behaviors, ​           ​
 +especially in case of interactive programs. To remedy this deficiency, ​         ​
 +we are interested in identifying a useful extension of dynamic logic            ​
 +with modalities for predicating not only final, but also intermediate ​          
 +states of program runs. In this talk, I discuss some possible designs ​          
 +for such a program logic on the level of syntax, semantics and                  ​
 +prospective axiomatizations. (Joint work with Keiko Nakata and Tarmo            ​
 +Uustalu.) ​                                                                      
 +** Fully Automated Shape Analysis Based on Forest Automata **
 +//Ondrej Lengal// ​
 +Forest automata (FA) have recently been proposed as a tool                    ​
 +for shape analysis of complex heap structures. FA encode sets of              ​
 +tree decompositions of heap graphs in the form of tuples of tree              ​
 +automata. In order to allow for representing complex heap graphs, ​            
 +the notion of FA allowed one to provide user-defined FA (called ​              
 +boxes) that encode repetitive graph patterns of shape graphs to be            ​
 +used as alphabet symbols of other, higher-level FA. In this paper, ​           ​
 +we propose a novel technique of automatically learning the FA to be           
 +used as boxes that avoids the need of providing them manually. ​               ​
 +Further, we propose a significant improvement of the automata ​                
 +abstraction used in the analysis. The result is an efficient, ​                
 +fully-automated analysis that can handle even as complex data                 
 +structures as skip lists, with the performance comparable to                  ​
 +state-of-the-art fully-automated tools based on separation logic, ​            
 +which, however, specialise in dealing with linked lists only.                 
 +** Invariant Generation for Parametrized Systems using Self-Reflection **
 +//Alejandro Sanchez// ​
 +We examine the problem of inferring invariants for parametrized systems.
 +Parametrized systems are concurrent systems consisting of an a priori
 +unbounded number of process instances running the same program. Such
 +systems are commonly encountered in many situations including device
 +drivers, distributed systems, and robotic swarms. In this talk, I will
 +describe a technique that enables leveraging off-the-shelf invariant
 +generators designed for sequential programs to infer invariants of
 +parametrized systems. The central challenge in invariant inference for
 +parametrized systems is that naïvely exploding the transition system with
 +all interleavings is not just impractical but impossible. In our approach,
 +the key enabler is the notion of a reflective abstraction that we prove has
 +an important correspondence with inductive invariants. This correspondence
 +naturally gives rise to an iterative invariant generation procedure that
 +alternates between computing candidate invariants and creating reflective
 +This is joint work with Sriram Sankaranarayanan,​ César Sánchez and Bor-Yuh
 +Evan Chang.
 +** Verification by abstraction and specialisation of constraint logic programs **
 +//John Gallagher//
 +This talk addresses the question of how static analysis and verification
 +techniques for constraint logic programs (CLP) are applied to other
 +formalisms. ​ First, the systematic translation of a variety of languages and
 +systems to constraint logic programs is reviewed, using the established
 +method of partial evaluation of semantics, proof rules and assertions
 +represented as CLP meta-programs. Then the approximation of CLP programs
 +using abstract interpretation is described, with implementation techniques
 +using external engines to implement abstract domains. ​ Both numeric and
 +symbolic abstract domains (tree automata) are considered. The talk focusses
 +on verification based on approximation of program models (bottom-up
 +semantics) rather than the alternative approach based on computation-tree
 +operational semantics. The role of so-called "magic set" transformations and
 +related techniques originating in Datalog is presented, enabling
 +query-directed analysis in the same bottom-up framework. Analysis for proof
 +of termination is also briefly reviewed. Thirdly, program transformations
 +that preserve CLP models are presented; this leads to verification
 +approaches in which a CLP program is successively specialised with respect
 +to a query until the property of interest is made explicit. ​ Finally we look
 +at abstract model checking based on CLP.  By applying standard abstract
 +interpretation techniques it is shown how arbitrary CTL properties can be
 +approximated without resorting to "​dual"​ or "​modal"​ transition systems.
 +** Object-Oriented Programs as Parameterised Systems **
 +//Siirtola Antti//
 +Object-oriented programs possess many parameters like the number of concurrent
 +threads, the number of replicated objects and the number of nested function
 +calls. Consequently,​ object-oriented programs are naturally modelled as
 +multi-parameterised systems. In this talk, I present one way to model Java-like
 +programs as parameterised systems in a CSP-style formalism. I also show how such
 +parameterised models can be automatically model checked by utilising existing
 +**  Underapproximation of Procedure Summaries for Integer Programs **
 +//Filip Konecni//
 +We show how to underapproximate the procedure summaries of recursive ​           ​
 +programs over the integers using off-the-shelf analyzers for                    ​
 +non-recursive programs. The novelty of our approach is that the                 
 +non-recursive program we compute may capture unboundedly many behaviors ​        
 +of the original recursive program for which stack usage cannot be               
 +bounded. Moreover, we identify a class of recursive programs on which           
 +our method terminates and returns the precise summary relations without ​        
 +underapproximation. Doing so, we generalize a similar result for                ​
 +non-recursive programs to the recursive case. Finally, we present ​              
 +experimental results of an implementation of our method applied on a            ​
 +number of examples.
 +** Auditing User-provided Axioms in Software Verification Conditions **
 +//Paul Jackson//
 +Sometimes software verification conditions (VCs) include user-provided
 +axioms to capture aspects of program specifications or to give hints
 +to help automatic provers. There is always the danger of mistakes in
 +these axioms. In the worst case these mistakes introduce
 +inconsistencies and VCs become erroneously provable.
 +I'll discuss use of an SMT solver to investigate the quality of
 +user-provided axioms employed in the formal verification of SPARK-Ada
 +** TBD **
 +//David Monniaux//
 +===== Group Photo =====
 +Group picture in Mdina, Malta: